Adam has in his Too Clever By Half blog a different solution that uses 3rd party services to manipulate and reverse the feed to be displayed in chronological order, but there are drawbacks in using (free) third party services.
Create a new page
Create a new page in your blog. Name it as you like. Edit the post as HTML (important!), and paste this code into it:
There are some configurable values in the script, which should be self explanatory. If you want, for small blogs you can display all entries on the same page (tested with ~200 entries). The maximum number of entries that this script can display is 500, because of limitations in Blogger feeds. The actual amount may be lower, and it depends how many entries are left in your blog's RSS feed and some Google caches (includeHistoricalEntries). You cannot know, before you try. Formatting of the posts' header and footer is very basic, you can make it better if you want, add social buttons, etc.
Save and test. You can see it in action here: Chronological post order from feed demo.
Reference: Google Feed API.
Update March 22th: Google loader no longer need API key. Article and code snippets simplified. Thanks to Adam who tipped me about this in comments. :)